Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Discover a comprehensive roadmap to mastering natural language processing. From the fundamentals of NLP, classical tasks, and development tools to advanced techniques and real-world applications of NLP.

Natural Language Processing Roadmap


Natural language processing (NLP) is a branch of artificial intelligence that deals with analyzing, understanding, and generating human language. It focuses on developing systems and algorithms that can process and understand natural language data, such as text and speech.

Some key aspects of natural language processing include:

  • Natural Language Understanding (NLU): This involves interpreting and comprehending the meaning of human language inputs, including tasks like named entity recognition, sentiment analysis, and text classification.

  • Natural Language Generation (NLG): This involves producing natural language outputs, such as text summaries, reports, or responses to user queries.

  • Machine Translation: Automatically translating text or speech from one language to another.

  • Speech Recognition: Converting spoken language into text.

  • Text-to-Speech: Converting written text into spoken language.

NLP combines various techniques from computer science, linguistics, and machine learning to solve problems related to human-computer interaction, information extraction, text mining, question answering, and more.

It plays a crucial role in many applications, including virtual assistants, chatbots, automated customer service systems, content analysis, and language translation tools.

Natural Language Processing (NLP) Learning Path

This roadmap covers the fundamental concepts, classical tasks, advanced techniques, tools and libraries, and real-world applications of Natural Language Processing. Each chapter delves into the respective topic, providing theoretical knowledge, practical examples, and hands-on exercises to reinforce learning.

  1. Introduction to NLP
  2. Fundamental Concepts
  3. Classical NLP Tasks
  4. Advanced NLP
  5. NLP Tools and Libraries
  6. NLP Applications and Use Cases
  7. Resources and Further Learning

Introduction to NLP

An overview of natural language processing, its applications across various domains, and the key challenges involved in teaching machines to understand human language.

  • What is Natural Language Processing?
  • Applications of NLP
  • Challenges in NLP

Fundamental Concepts

Essential building blocks for NLP including text preprocessing techniques, methods for representing text data as numbers, and language models for generating text.

  • Text Preprocessing
    1. Tokenization
    2. Stemming and Lemmatization
    3. Stop Word Removal
    4. Normalization
  • Representing Text
    1. Bag-of-Words Model
    2. TF-IDF
    3. Word Embeddings (Word2Vec, GloVe, FastText)
  • Language Models
    1. N-gram Language Models
    2. Neural Language Models

Classical NLP Tasks

Traditional natural language processing tasks like text classification, sentiment analysis, topic modeling, named entity recognition, information extraction, text summarization, and machine translation.

  • Text Classification
    1. Naive Bayes
    2. Logistic Regression
    3. Support Vector Machines
  • Sentiment Analysis
  • Topic Modeling
    1. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)
  • Named Entity Recognition
    1. Rule-based Approaches
    2. Statistical Approaches
  • Information Extraction
  • Text Summarization
    1. Extractive Summarization
    2. Abstractive Summarization
  • Machine Translation
    1. Statistical Machine Translation
    2. Neural Machine Translation

Advanced NLP

Cutting-edge NLP models and techniques such as sequence-to-sequence models, transformers like BERT and GPT, transfer learning, contextual embeddings, multimodal NLP applications, conversational AI systems, and ethical considerations.

  • Sequence-to-Sequence Models
    1. Encoder-Decoder Architecture
    2. Attention Mechanisms
  • Transformer Models
    1. Understanding Transformers
    2. BERT and its Variants
    3. GPT and its Variants
  • Transfer Learning and Fine-tuning
  • Contextual Embeddings
  • Multimodal NLP
    1. Image Captioning
    2. Visual Question Answering
  • Conversational AI
    1. Dialogue Systems
    2. Chatbots
  • Ethical Considerations in NLP

NLP Tools and Libraries

Popular Python libraries for NLP, evaluation metrics for benchmarking models, and deploying NLP models to production environments.

  • Python Libraries for NLP
    1. NLTK
    2. spaCy
    3. Gensim
    4. Hugging Face Transformers
  • Evaluation Metrics
  • Deployment and Production

NLP Applications and Use Cases

Real-world use cases demonstrating applications of NLP techniques like sentiment analysis, named entity recognition, text summarization, machine translation, and conversational AI across different domains.

  • Sentiment Analysis for Product Reviews
  • Named Entity Recognition for News Articles
  • Text Summarization for Academic Papers
  • Machine Translation for E-Commerce
  • Conversational AI for Customer Service

Resources and Further Learning

Find valuable resources for learning NLP - online courses, books, research papers, communities, conferences, tools, and other relevant artifacts.

  • Online Courses and Tutorials
  • Books and Research Papers
  • Online Communities and Forums
  • NLP Conferences and Events
  • NLP Development Tools and Frameworks
  • NLP Ethics and Policy Resources


We hope you find our Natural Language Processing (NLP) learning path useful.

Discover everything you need to know about building for the emerging web by following these structured learning paths at your own pace.

This roadmap was last updated on: 02:52:07 20 May 2024 UTC

Stay informed, stay inspired.
Subscribe to our newsletter.

Get curated weekly analysis of vital developments, ground-breaking innovations, and game-changing resources in AI & ML before everyone else. All in one place, all prepared by experts.